Fear of failure and not standing out from the crowd will not get you far up the ladder of success
article by Diane Shawe M.Ed. Ed
Four monkeys were placed in a room that had a tall pole in the center. Suspended from the top of that pole was a bunch of bananas. One of the hungry monkeys started climbing the pole to get something to eat, but just as he reached out to grab a banana, he was doused with a torrent of cold water.
Squealing, he scampered down the pole and abandoned his attempt to feed himself.
Each monkey made a similar attempt, and each one was drenched with cold water. After making several attempts, they finally gave up.
Then researchers removed one of the monkeys from the room and replaced him with a new monkey. As the newcomer began to climb the pole, the other three grabbed him and pulled him down to the ground.
After trying to climb the pole several times and being dragged down by the others, he finally gave up and never attempted to climb the pole again.
The researchers replaced the original monkeys, one by one, and each time a new monkey was brought in, he would be dragged down by the others before he could reach the bananas.
In time, the room was filled with monkeys who had never received a cold shower. None of them knew why.
There are just over 500,000 millionaire households in Britain, more than in any other European country but fewer than in China, Japan and of course the US.
article by Diane Shawe M.Ed and Eryca Freemantle
As for billionaires, the UK has 1,044 and is second only to the US, though as we all know most of those billionaires are people who made their money elsewhere and then moved to the UK, rather than the home-grown variety.
Worldwide there were 16.3m millionaire households at the end of last year, up from 13.7m at the end of 2012.
Those are three of the conclusions from the latest study by Boston Consulting Group of global wealth – it does it every year and 2013 was notable as the rich got quite a lot richer.
Total global private wealth grew by 14.6 per cent to reach $152bn, the two main drivers being the rise in equity markets and the continuing strong economic growth in the emerging world. The region in which wealth grew fastest, unsurprisingly, was the Asia-Pacific. Since the financial crisis China has passed both Germany and Japan in terms of total household wealth.
So with all that pool of statistics, how do you go about bagging a High Networth Client and keeping them?
Do work at Knowing the trends and your product.When selling a product or service to an athlete or celebrity, it’s all about referrals. You won’t get far going directly to the client, Instead, you need to build relationships with trusted sources of the client. For example, find a way to connect with an agent or financial advisor. If you can get these people sold on you, you have a much better chance of getting a referral.
Don’t Scream – No need to scream. Stay cool, calm and collected. After all, they are human.
Do learn to get around the gatekeeper.To approach a client’s trusted sources, you have to find a way in. Social media makes it easier than ever to find connections, but the power of the phone is still the better route, but you need to plan what your going to offer. Remember the gatekeeper can also get bombarded by lots of enquiries every day on social media so be smarter and look at how you can develop point 7
Don’t say “OMG” – Some people say “Oh my God” to everything, you sound juvenile
Do try and beat the receptionist to the office. A little clever secrets is to make early morning phone calls, before the office opens. If the company has a dial-by-name directory, you can often catch the person you want to reach at their desk, especially if their name is on the door. You’d be amazed at who picks up the phone at 5:30 a.m.”
Don’t Stare: Its rude and frightening
Do try to stand out.When you’re selling a commodity such as makeup, you’re working with the same inventory as every other artist. That means your value comes from standing out.No matter what your industry, work on developing your qualifications and personality, Have an excellent commitment to client, and find a niche and exploit it.
Do not ever say – “I love You” Do you know how silly you sound? They will no doubt think your crazy
Do say a memorable ‘thank you.’ Often people do things prior to selling to be remembered, but often when you get the sale, doing a memorable thank you can result in other referrals coming your way.
Don’t take Photos – Do not take photos of them while working on them without asking their permission
Do have a higher mission.It’s not always about making money just to pay your bills, giving back can also encourage high net worth clients feel good about working with you and support any project that is dear to your heart and help people or animals around the world.
Don’t Cry – Professionals do not cry on the job- especially for nothing
No business can grow or survive without new customers!
article by Diane Shawe M.ED
If lead generation – in other words – getting more clients and growing your business – is something you keep put off and try to put right in a panic (when it’s too late!) because you are too busy the rest of the time, then it is essential that you adopt a system that generates new leads – even when marketing is at the bottom of your priority list.
That’s why websites such as pagewiz.com have done so well over the past 3 years.
But before you can even look at setting up your marketing strategy – the web pages, videos, emails and all the other things you need – here’s how we can help you, for a very small fee (£9.99 + vat) to shape up your campaign in a 3 hour bootcamp.
Mucky mobile: Your phone could carry 10 times as many bugs as a lavatory seat
Next time you use you mobile phone, you might want to give it a little clean.
Researchers have discovered there are more bacteria on the average mobile than you will find in a toilet seat! Experts said the reason is that phones are often passed between people which spreads the germs around – but they are never cleaned which means the diseases keep on building up.
So when did you last clean your mobile phone on your sleeves or on your skirt?
Previous research has found that other things we assume are clean are in reality rather disgusting.
Keep germs at bay this winter
British scientists discovered that cash machines have similar levels of pseudomonads and bacillus, bacterias which are known to cause sickness and diarrhoea, as they found in public toilets.
Computer keyboards are also five times dirtier than the average lavatory seat.
Researchers from Which? swabbed 33 keyboards for food poisoning bugs e.coli, coliforms, staphylococcus aureus and enterobacteria and found four were a potential health hazard.
One was even ‘condemned’ because it was so infectious.
Do you need to fine tune your big business idea? Are you looking for a partner? Then this is an event not to be missed!
Bill Walsh has agreed to come to the UK from the US and give a free Business Growth Session whilst I host a business success panel.To post your question to the panelists Click here
Come to this free event and learn how to launch & build an even more successful business with one of the World’s most successful Business Coach. Normally to attend one of his sessions would cost over £1,000
When you attend you will have the opportunity to put your questions to our Business Panelist and network with local business executives.
The educational focus is on Business Growth – Public Speaking and how to create your own VIP Masterminds. Plus everyone will receive some amazing gifts just for attending!
Here’s why you should attend:
Bill Walsh will discuss:
How to Monetise your Intellectual Property
How to Build a 12-Month Success Plan
How to Connect & Do deals with the Ultra-Successful
How to Become laser focused & ultra-productive
How to Monetise your Passion
Or is there hope in a BRAIN project funded by the President of the USA?
Well you do hear people say that mobile technology and smart tech is rewiring their brains brain, making a new breed of digital natives and even brain washing our children. The facts are that they will spend 11.5 hours a day using smart technology; whether that’s computers, tablets, television, mobile phones, or video games (and in my experience usually more than one at a time). That is a big chunk of their 15 or 16 waking hours. The media tend to exploit these facts and combine them with pseudo-science with outlandish claims of ‘brain rewiring’ and potential harm. I have heard this uttered in alarm, (usually by those concerned that children’s ability to learn and pay attention) and stated as a ‘good thing’ by others, convinced that a generation of digital natives has developed incredible powers of absorbing and applying information.
Indeed 4 years ago President Obama officially announced in 2013 that 100 million dollars in funding for arguably the most ambitious neuroscience initiative ever proposed. The project has the catchy name of Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neuro-technologies, or BRAIN, and aims to reconstruct the activity of every single neuron as they fire simultaneously in different brain circuits, or perhaps even whole brains. If you have seen Iron Man 3 there is marvellous moment when the evil Aldrich Killian (played by Guy Pearce) shows the beautiful Gwyneth Paltrow inside his brain in real time; a must see moment. The next great project, as Obama called it, could help neuroscientists understand the origins of cognition, perception, and other brain activities, which may lead to new, more effective treatments for conditions like autism or mood disorders and could help veterans suffering from brain injuries. It also might just help people realise why they need to choose a great course and real focus.
So what are facts about neuroscience and mobile smart technology? Can we learn effectively using smart devices? Well, when our minds are engaged in a simple or complex task, the information relevant to that task is held in our STM or short-term memory. According to the late but great psychologist, George Miller, this mental holding space can only contain four to seven pieces of information at a time. To be retained it needs to be transferred to the LTM (long term memory). We can only move information from short-term to long-term memory using our attention; we have to be paying attention to, and thinking about, a fact or a concept in order for it to be encoded in memory.
To encode properly you need to eliminate distractions, which are often caused by multitasking events. Young people report frequent media multitasking (texting, emailing, surfing the web, Twitter and Facebook) while also doing homework. Their belief is they can do it effectively, but research shows otherwise. In fact, research demonstrates that individuals who multitask the most are actually the worst at it. Whether we’re learning with a tablet, smart device or a book, it’s best to give it our best attention.
The rapid evolution of mobile technology has placed quite a burden on our concentration. The day is constantly being challenged by external sources. Even the most pressing of matters can be interrupted at any moment by a familiar buzzing in the pocket. This gives a friendly nudge to pay attention that the brain responds to and many find virtually impossible to resist; alarmingly even while driving. These all too frequent interruptions, coupled with growing expectations for immediate responses (emails responded to at 2am), will challenge our cognitive control system at its very core.
The cognitive control system is our ability to focus on accomplishing a task in the context of competing demands. You might want to look at a course that explains this in more depth. This special ability is what has allowed humans to achieve remarkable achievements, from developing languages and building complex societies.
It doesn’t matter that we think children are growing up digital natives and somehow addicted to technology. It simply doesn’t change how we come to understand new information. Basic understanding happens when we process new information in terms of its meaning, rather than its surface features. Understanding happens when we connect new information to what we know already.
It seems that the competing noise and multitasking distractions, will have a more significant negative impact for those with undeveloped or impaired focus and cognitive control. Those that easily lose focus such as children and us older adults, or in the presence of neurological or psychiatric conditions like ADHD or Alzheimer’s disease. There is no doubt that we have to be careful about the influence of unending data streams of interference on our minds. We need to make more informed decisions about how best to interact with the technologies around learners and how we use the technology positively every day. Perhaps the BRAIN project will guide us on new ways being effective learners.
The lesson seems to be that when we are engaged in something that requires high quality attention (like one of our excellent express courses in critical thinking we should conduct ourselves in a manner that is most appropriate for how our brains function: in the absolute focus mode.
So it seems that despite all the real concerns, technology is not rewiring young people’s brains or brain washing them. Indeed mobile smart technology must and can be harnessed to improve our minds. This will come as a relief to some and a disappointment to others. This new brain research will shed light on our understanding, our attention and focus systems and better memory that can now be applied to a new generation of humans, not so different from the ones who came before.
Diane Shawe is an author, speaker, trainer, mentor, consultant and entrepreneur with more than 15 years of experience. She has personally trained over 2800 people around the world in a variety of fields and has published a number of works. She has contributed to over 100 Kiva Entrepreneur’s around the world.
She was also one of the producers of a Day time Ladies Talk Show in 2015 and Host of one of the UK’s best loved Annual Hair Extensions Awards.
Diane also enjoys oil painting, sailing and clay pigeon shooting. She focuses on topics that she is passionate about in her writing and has attracted over 36,000 followers on her popular blog.
Company Name: AVPT Short Courses & Hair Extension Training Academy
Contact Person: Diane Shawe MEd
Email: Send Email
Phone: +44 208 1333120
Country: United Kingdom
Universal. Some type of virtual learning will be mandatory in all schools, and virtual schooling, with no in-person teaching at all, will be widespread.
33% (171 votes)
Prevalent. Online learning will continue to grow, though not every school will have it. Online-only schooling will enjoy greater popularity.
51% (264 votes)
Atypical. The challenges of online courses will restrict their usage; classroom learning will remain the primary place for education.
13% (66 votes)
None of the above.
3% (16 votes)
When I voted, I considered lots of possibilities and my answer was that it would be prevalent and thus continuing to grow, and will be growing in popularity. This seemed to be the most popular answer. As I considered this more, I asked myself what education would look like in 20 years. I started teaching in 1981 and by 1985 we had word processors (the joy of early green screen Amstrads) and presentations were still done with colourful posters that were painstakingly made. Teachers and students remember ‘Bandas’ (the smell, oh the smell) and Roneo ‘mass production’ via stencils. I used state of the art learning aides: video’s (Betamax) of David Attenborough’s Life on Earth were the highlight of the 80’s Biology teaching. I can’t remember when I got my first email address, but I can remember my first home computer in 1991!
So when I ask myself what education will be like in the next 20 years, I imagine it to be a little more advanced with some more bells and whistles with some early adopter teachers that embrace it, some that go with the flow and try to keep up, and some that are “old school”. I do know a few things: education is slow to change….slow is fast in education…and innovation & technology are useless unless the teachers are supported and encouraged to try it and use it.
This year proved to be one of great debate surrounding the future and necessity of the Learning Management System. Much of it boils down to whether employee learning should be controlled and tracked, particularly when much of workplace learning occurs through informal channels. Learning Management Systems can enable collaboration, knowledge sharing, and social networking.
So here goes: my top ten predictions for change in the next 10 years:
NO MORE OLD DESKS, BENCHES AND CHAIRS
The 21st century does not fit neatly into rows because we all need to be facing the same way! I do a lot of stand up comedy and being on the stage is frightening for many. Allow the network-based concepts of flow, collaboration, and dynamism help rearrange education for authentic 21st century learning.
NO MORE LANGUAGE LABS
It is true that foreign language acquisition is only a smartphone away or Google translate away on your iPad. See www.expresstrainingcourses.com . Time to get rid of those clunky headphones,desktops and monitors and do something fun and funky with that room. Make it a space for interaction and global connection.
NO MORE COMPUTERS
Hmm…how does this work? More precisely this one should read, let’s change our view and concept of what a computer is and does. Because computing is going mobile and over the next decade we’re going to see the full fury of individualised computing via hand helds come to the fore. See Diane Shawe’s blog’s on this! Due to improved infrastructure, slick mobile operating systems and smartphone market penetration, we seemed to hit a tipping point of readiness for mobile content this year. From mini-courses to collaboration to performance support, mobile learning could go mainstream in the near future. In terms of converting legacy courses, it will mean streamlining everything—paring down over-sized multimedia elements as well as implementing a ‘less is more’ philosophy. In terms of new development, designers will have to manage the limitations of a smaller screen and decreased memory capacity. When mobile learning hits critical mass, people of all ages and occupations will reap the benefits.
NO MORE HOMEWORK
There is no doubt that the 21st century is a 24/7 environment. And the next decade is going to see the traditional temporal boundaries between home and school vanish. Mobile Learning, anytime, anywhere, anyplace…The new Martini generation!
TRUE DIFFERENTIATED LEARNING
The 21st century is absolutely customisable. In ten years, the teacher who hasn’t yet figured out how to use tech to personalise learning will be the teacher out of a job. Differentiation won’t make you ‘distinguished’; it’ll just be a natural part of your work. Most learning will be done via tablets and phones and will happen everywhere.
LETTING GO OF THE FEAR OF WIKIPEDIA
So many people have a fear of Wiki but in many ways Wikipedia is the greatest democratising force in the world right now. I know it can be wrong. It also challenges the Teacher as the expert. If you are afraid of letting your students peruse it, it’s time you get over yourself.
NO MORE TEXT BOOKS
Books were nice. In ten years’ time, all reading will be via digital means. Maybe you like the ‘feel’ of paper. Well, in ten years’ time you’ll hardly tell the difference as ‘paper’ itself becomes digitized and a generation od Children will have better posture for not lugging around a ton of text books.THE JOURNEY TO AUGMENTED REALITY
Gary Woodill, Ed.D., a Senior Research Analyst at Brandon Hall Research and author of The Mobile Learning Edge, was kind enough to contribute his perspective on the trends affecting Augmented Reality related to mobile learning.
According to Dr. Woodlill, “Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the most disruptive applications for mobile learners. It is an example of location-based services, where information is provided to you based on your location, and even the direction that your phone camera is facing. With that information, your smartphone can supply additional textual information about what you are looking at, or can blend computer generated objects with the video or still image on your screen.
THE END OF I.T. DEPARTMENTS
I.T. Departments as we currently know them will disappear… Cloud computing and a decade’s worth of increased wifi and satellite access will make some of the traditional roles of IT — software, security, and connectivity — a thing of the past. So the question is what will all those IT professionals do? Simple: Innovate. Look to I.T. departments to instigate real change in the function of schools over the next twenty years. Dream, design and deliver!
NEW BLENDED LEARNING
Blended or hybrid learning came about because one eLearning course is often not the solution to an organisation’s or an individual’s learning needs. Until recently, blended referred to a learning experience that included both instructor-led and online self-paced components. But that was a long time ago in Internet Time.
Now that live synchronous instruction frequently occurs online and that opportunities for individualized learning abound, the definition of blended learning is expanding to include any number of strategies, from learning through a community of practice to mobile performance support. For example, someone might attend a workplace webinar on how people learn, then participate in a video-based Google+ hangout with a cognitive psychologist, and join a LinkedIn community of instructional designers to discuss the application of these ideas.
So (in my humble opinion) it will be a very different in School in 10 years time and hugely different for learners. We will become genuine Life Long Learners served by technology and we will see fundamental changes for employers, employees and systems. Technology enhanced learning (TEL) has the goal to provide socio-technical innovations (also improving efficiency and cost effectiveness) for e-learning practices, regarding individuals and organisations, independent of time, place and pace.
The World of education has changed, and this has impacted on personal trainers, teachers and life coaches on how they source and deliver training.
There is an opportunity to train as a Virtual Teacher and start working with students all around the world. This 2 day course will enable you to follow procedure, e-monitor, e-mentor and e-access your students progress and help them to complete their online course.
Institutions of higher learning increasingly embrace on-line education, with 65.5 percent of chief academic officers now calling on-line education ‘critical’ to their institutions! long-term strategy, an opinion that’s risen more than 15% over eight years.
67% believe academic outcomes from on-line classes are equivalent to those in face-to-face learning, but still, one-third of academic leaders think on-line classes are inferior. We do not agree with this but we do understand that resistance to change can often impede new growth.
This 2 day workshop will introduce the changing face of virtual education and how you can prepare and adapt yourself and business for this expanding sector.
At this two day event you will understand more about the following:
Enhance your understanding of learning styles and trends for 2012
Reaction to Change, Early adopters and Diehards.
Learning Management Systems
Mobile legacy courses
Blogs and education
Digital publishing and learning
QR Codes and how it will benefit educators
Hosting Learning in the cloud
New Blended Learning in community, mobile, webinar and video
Augmented Reality related to mobile learning and diversity
Virtual Worlds multi learners simulations in 3D
Pocket Video Technology for informal learning
Social Media integrating across all devices to improve on-line collaboration
What is a Virtual Tutor/Trainer Teacher
Defining the growth of on-line Soft Skills Training
Benefits and Advantages for Virtual on-line Tutor/Trainers
Diminished environmental Constraints
The New On-line E-Learning Process
e-monitoring, e-montoring, e-assessments and reporting.
There is an opportunity to train as a Virtual Teacher and start working with students all around the world. This 2 day course will enable you to follow procedure, e-monitor, e-mentor and e-access your students progress and help them to complete their on-line course.
Labels: online training, life coach, personal development, project management, teachers, trainers, Educators, online courses, heads of departments,educators,universities,colleges
When I have reviewed some of the comments placed on youtube, I cringe. It certainly does not encourage you to allow any type of comments to be randomly placed on your own websites or blogs. But if you’ve been wondering whether or not you should allow comments on your business or personal blog, allow me to add some fodder for your decision making analysis.
Comments on your blog help you optimize your website and make it easier to be found for more key phrases and for the key phrases you are already targeting. How is that? well….
search engines love content. I know most of us think content is dead, and that video and social media are the optimum SEO’s. But the more the content, search engines are drawn to it like bee to honey. In other words, that 300-word blog post you wrote yesterday will get more search engine traction when it has 20 comments on it.
There are three ways blog comments help you:
a) Blog commentators will use the same key phrases in their comments that you used in your blog post. That will mean more instances of the keyword on the page and therefore you are more likely to be found for that key phrase.
b) Blog commentators will also use related key phrases that you didn’t use in your blog post. That will result in your blog post being found for key phrases that you didn’t target.
c) Thirdly, some blog posts, like forum posts, appear as separate pages in the search engines. Note that I said “some”. In order for your blog posts to appear as separate pages they’ll have to be threaded and coded just so.
Blog comments help you optimize your business website, it is particularly useful if you are trying to brand or generate interest. I strongly encourage you to allow at least permission based comments on your business blog to increase your search engine optimisation. If someone writes something or wants to link an inappropriate website to your you can terminate or trash the link before it goes live.
With lots of websites offering back links, text links and link exchange, this is one of the quickest ways to generate the same think without it costing you anything or taking up too much of your time.
All I can say is WAKE-UP SME’s and start smelling the COFFEE!
by Diane Shawe
I-send was sent a recent post from the the analyst, Chetan Sharma, who released its US Mobile Data Market Update for Q4 2010 and 2011.
The report reveals that the US wireless data market grew 5 per cent quarter-on-quarter, and 23 per cent year-on-year, to reach $14.8bn (£9.1bn) in mobile data service revenues in Q4 2010. The final tally for the 2010 year was $55bn, which the analyst expects to increase by 22 per cent to $67bn in 2011.
US mobile subscriptions officially crossed the 100 per cent penetration mark in Q4 2010. The connected device category (including tablets, M2M, telematics, eReaders, etc.), registered the highest growth at 55 per cent, while postpaid subscriptions grew by only 3 per cent for the calendar year. Connected devices now account for 7 per cent of the installed base.
Smartphone shipments overtake computers
The report notes that 2010 marked the milestone of the start of a new computing and communications era. For the first time in the US, smartphone shipments exceeded the traditional computer segments (desktops, notebooks and netbooks). In 2011, the smartphone segment, along with connected devices will not only exceed the computer segment in unit shipment but more importantly, in overall revenues as well.
While connected devices ARPU is low, Chetan Sharma believes this segment will prove to be the most profitable in the coming years, due to higher margins. By the end of 2011, connected devices will be commanding double digit market share.
However, not all sub-segments are going to be successful in the operator channel, until multi-device data pricing plans are introduced. Most of the tablets and eReaders can work well with only wi-fi most of the time. Monthly data plans make sense for enterprise users but not for consumers who might use these devices occasionally. As such, the report says, tablets will be more successful in direct and traditional retail channels. Operators who start to bundle multiple devices by single data plans and data buckets are going to see a better yield in this category. Similarly, OEMs who rely on operators for sell-through of tablets/eReaders will see low volumes compared to players who have more diverse distribution channels, such as Apple and HP.
As previously noted by Chetan Sharma, the iPad and other tablets are making Netbooks irrelevant. In fact, tablets are starting to eat into the laptop category as well. As expected, the device has been a hit with many enterprises with mobile workers. Many enterprises are giving out iPads to their workforce instead of laptops or Netbooks. The analyst expects iPad to dominate the space in 2011 as competitors will find it hard to compete across all dimensions – price, performance, ecosystem, distribution, and brand power.
Data traffic more than doubles
Mobile data consumption continued to grow across all networks, increasing by 2-5 times on major US networks. While average data consumption in the US at the end of 2010 was 350 MB/month, many of the superphones introduced in the second half of 2010 are clocking 1-1.5GB/month on average. Thus, while data revenues for the year increased by 23 per cent, mobile data traffic grew by 132 per cent.
The significant rise in smartphone sales and usage in the US market – over 50 per cent of devices sold in the US in 2010 were smartphones, almost twice the global average – means that by the end of 2011, in the US, the smartphones will consume more data than data cards for the first time. Chetan Sharma also expects the US to become the number 1 nation in mobile data consumption this year, edging out Sweden.
The report notes also that the center of gravity of the mobile market has shifted back to the US, which is also the most dominant market in terms of revenue generation for the industry. While the US represents less than 6 per cent of the subscription base, it accounts for over 21 per cent of data revenues, with Verizon Wireless becoming the number one mobile data operator in 2010, edging past the decade-long leader, NTT DoCoMo. AT&T also went past China Mobile to gain its current number three ranking. By the end of 2013, the US market will account for 25 per cent of global mobile data services revenues.
Chetan Sharma calls the Nokia-Microsoft announcement “a wake-up call to many in the industry who were in denial”, and praises Nokia for decisiveness, and for moving quickly under pressure. But it concludes that the impact on Nokia remains uncertain, saying: “While there were risks with Android, going with Win7 is not an assured path to resurrection either. It all comes down to execution…Nokia has significant talent and it’s a proud company, but jumping into the shark-infested cold waters miles away from the shore will require all the stamina, good weather, and skill it can muster to make landfall before thanksgiving”.
Looking ahead, the report notes that Android and iOS are completely dominating the developer and ecosystem mindshare, and says the race to become a viable third option is on, with operators keen to see another competitive force emerge in the market. Chetan Sharma will be discussing how the industry is going to evolve in the next decade at its mobile thought leadership summit – Mobile Future Forward, in September.
I-send proximity is launching a series of workshop/expert forums to discuss the implementation and road mapping of apps into any type of business, visit http://www.i-send.co events page for more information.